Academy of History and Science

Historical chronology what you need to know to understand what situations, events and inventions positively and negatively impacted the development of cities and overall infrastructure, relationships and social development periods.

  • PALAEOLOTHIC (-6000 BC)

    The Palaeolithic Age was the period of the first use of stone tool, one of the most important Palaeolithic Age inventions, also widely regarded as the first-ever human invention, used for cutting/hunting.



  • MESOLYTHIC (6000 - 4000 BC)

    The beginning varies on region based on warming of the climate. People evoluted in using of large chipped stone stools to smaller (microliths). People hunt in groups to a more hunter-gatherer lifestyle.



  • Neolithic 4000 - 3000 BC

    People had started farming but still used stone mainly for making weapons and tools. People began growing crops, practising animal husbandry, which is control, cultivation, management, and production of domestic animals and a range of pottery.



  • Early Bronze Age (3000 - 2100 BC)

    The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanisation into organised city states and the invention of writing and the invention of the wheel. (the Uruk period in the fourth millennium BC).



  • Middle Bronze Age (2100 - 1550 BC)

    In the Middle Bronze Age movements of people partially changed the political pattern of the Near East ( Amorites, Hittites, Hurrians, Hyksos and possibly the Israelites).



  • Late Bronze Age (1550 - 1200 BC)

    The Bronze Age was the most advanced in metalworking consisted of techniques for smelting copper. Age is specific by competing powerful kingdoms and their vassal states. Copper trade played an important role for civilization contacts.



  • Iron Age (1200 - 800 BC)

    A human culture characterized by the smelting and use of iron started in western Asia and Egypt. Age implements weapons made of iron, and creates the worst of four ages of the human race, characterized by danger, corruption, and toil.



  • Greek Era (800 - 400 BC)

    Ancient Greece achieved new heights in art, architecture, theater, and philosophy. Democracy was refined under the leadership of Pericles. One of the most spectacular achievements was the rebuilding of the Parthenon's temple.



  • Macedonian Era (400 - 300 BC)

    Macedonia, ancient kingdom centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula. The cultural links of prehistoric Macedonia were mainly with Greece and Anatolia.



  • Hellenistic Era (300 - 146 BC)

    The period from the death of Alexander the Great was a time when Greek culture spread throughout and influenced Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean regions.



  • Roman Era (146 BC - AD 476)

    Was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. A period of unrest and civil wars in the 1st century bce marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire.



  • Early Middle Ages (AD 476 - 1000)

    The Early Medieval Era also called the Dark Ages begin with the "fall of Rome", and frequent Viking activity. Time of expansion of Islam in Africa and Spain. Christianity spread throughout of Europe. Papacy evolved into a powerful political entity.



  • High Middle Ages (AD 1000 - 1300)

    Beginning with Norman conquests in Britain and Sicily, closed by the signing the Magna Carta. Europe had become Christianized. The Papacy established as a political force. Growth intellectual renaissance, notable philosophers, new Universities. Feudalism of today was firmly established in this age.



  • Late Middle Ages (AD 1300 - 1450)

    Cataclysmic and events led to the 100 Years War, the Black Death, the Avignon Papacy, the Italian Renaissance, and the Peasants' Revolt. The Black Death, preceded by overpopulation, wiped out a third of Europe. Era seeds the first notes of Individual Rights.

    CENTURY: 14th

  • The Renaissance (AD 1450 - 1600)

    The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The Renaissance was a period of "rebirth" in arts, science and culture.

    CENTURY: 14th - 15th

  • Age of Discovery (AD 1600 - 1750)

    The Age of Discovery also called the Age of exploration and the Great navigations went exploring north and Americas by European explorers.

    CENTURY: 16th - 17th

  • Industrial Revolution (AD 1750 - 1900)

    The Industrial Revolution time of great growth in technologies and inventions, transformed rural societies into industrialized, urban ones. The most of families and corporations that rule the business today's world formed global operations in this age.

    CENTURY: 17th - 18th

  • Modern Era (AD 1900 - 2050)

    The modern era is associated with the development of individualism, capitalism, mass urbanisation, and a belief in a technological possibilities. The era is on the top level of options expression across industries, individualities, art, or commercial presentation.

    CENTURY: 19th - 20th - 21st

  • Quantum Era (AD 2050 - 2200)

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