Ambient energy refers to energy extracted with heat pumps from the environment (ground, air, and water) for space heating. Ambient energy is the difference between the heat produced by heat pumps and the electricity they consume.

Various ambient energy sources, including sunlight, vibrations, wind, thermal gradients, and RF with their typical power densities, have been studied and investigated.

A comparison of energy sources, power densities, and harvesting methods Various ambient energy sources such as sunlight, wind, mechanical vibrations, thermal gradients, and RF are briefly overviewed together with their feasibility.

Solar and wind energy harvesting is the earliest adopted approach for powering wireless sensor nodes for SHM systems.

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