Energy, ecology, and climate in Smart Cities also called Green, Renewable, or Sustainable energy is the energy receiving from natural sources. It is often called also free, however, the infrastructure behind the development from a global perspective is really not a cheap thing. These resources are further organized in the Smart Energy Grids. The development of energetic industry and the transformation of mining into sustainable sources of energy is natural evolution step of our civilization.
Smart Energy Grid covers all types of energy mining areas and altogether Smart Grid is something like a “node” that covers the energy mining network. The management of the Smart Grid is about searching a grid parts development direction and solving compromises between the production price, cost of infrastructure, land consumption, and the effectiveness of preferred energy source usage.
Water energy exist since the end of the 18th century and it’s the first attempt of getting energy from a sustainable resource – the water flow on rivers. Hydropower generated 16.6% of the world’s total electricity with power of the largest hydropower plants global as facilities that have a capacity of more than 30 megawatts.
Solar power plants utilize thermal energy from the sun, which is abundant, available, intermittent, yet cheap. This thermal energy is further transformed into electricity. It can be used as a local power system or central power plant. The biggest solar power plants on the world generate the power between 550MW and 1,547MW of the electricity power.
A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which work like an helicopter blades. Modern wind power plants use double-blade or triblade fixed blades with a diameter of 80-100 m. Wind turbines manufactured today have power ratings ranging from 250 watts to 7 MW. An onshore wind turbine with a capacity of 2.5–3 MW can produce more than 6 million kWh in a year – enough to supply 1,500 average EU households.
Geothermal power plants use hydrothermal resources that have both water (hydro) and heat (thermal). Geothermal power plants require high-temperature hydrothermal resources that come from either dry steam wells or from hot water wells. Power plan with more than 100 units generates totally more than 3,000 MW of steam turbines for geothermal power plants, ranging from small output to large output units to meet various operational requirements.
Despite remembers of negative events in the history, the nuclear energy is one of the most effective, the most safer and the most nature friendly energy producing technology available for the global population these days. One nuclear reactor with a net summer electricity generating capacity of about 581 megawatts of electricity power. Globally operate over 350 power plants that generate US, China, India, Russia, and Europe cities.
There are already running experimental projects that are testing alternative energy sources:
fusion power plants that bring an additional opportunity to the electrification of the global needs.
One more experimental solution under the development is an ambient energy and getting the electricity power from the vibrations.
The most significant impact of the energy sources transformation is the sustainability of resources for such volume of global population with possibility to handle level of the solution making disadvantage of the human health.