Garden city – Intended to be a planned, self-contained community surrounded by “greenbelts”, containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

Garden city movement

One of the movements that emerged in response to the terrible urban growth in Victorian Britain. The goals of the movement are articulated in Ebenezer Howard’s book To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Howard developed the idea of a kind of ecological determinism, according to which the moral and emotional ills of urban life arise under the influence of poor environmental conditions. He proposed the creation of closed cities of about 30,000 people, with extensive parks, surrounded by “home farms. Each house in such a city should have a garden. Two real garden cities were built in England: Letchworth and Welwyn. After the adoption in 1909 of the first “Law on urban planning” the idea of the garden-city became very popular, but later was compromised and gradually forgotten as in England and other countries. Most of all, its influence had an impact on the residential areas being built in 1918-39 suburbs with lots of gardens. Many of the movement’s original ideas were revived in the design of “new towns” in the period after the New Towns Act of 1946 and before the abandonment of the “new cities” policy in 1977.

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