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Particular Universe of crystals

In the West, civilizations were not applied to focus on the knowledge about the templates of nature. In ancient China, this knowledge was known as “Li“. There is nothing more elevated or beautiful than Li. Li gives stability to the Earth, it endows all kinds of living beings with the ability to give birth to their kind, things do not possess this feature, it is independent of them, but resides and consists in Li, it prevails over everything, it is in everything, rules everything and produces everything. Li extends into and out of the Universe. And to give this proper meaning, it is necessary to conceive of space not as a substance whose parts are separated from one another but as the order of all things since they are to be seen as an existing whole.

Li explains the existing order and structure of Nature. We cannot watch this structure as something static, frozen, or unchangeable. It is very similar to a mosaic created by all existing beings. The structure is in the arteria of leaves, in the picture of the turtle armor and stones. The alive picture is the expression of nature – the secret language of the art of nature. For example, “labyrinth” is one of the many templates of Li. We can find him in the structure of corals, mushrooms, cabbage, or the human brain structure. The cellular structure is one more example of the templates of Li. We know thousands of different structures, but they all have an analogical structure depending on their functionality.

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Compatibility with any biological system

It is possible to apply the term network structures or networks to any biological system consisting of nodes and connections between them. It is evident that a significant number of various biosystems have a decentralized character and, at the same time, are characterized by the predominance of cooperation of elements over competition between them. Network decentralized structures are also very characteristic of the world of microorganisms, which are arranged so that the absence of a single governing center does not prevent effective coordination of social behavior. Cells in many tissues of the animal organism are also organized according to the principles of network organization. Examples of decentralized network structures are also modern information networks, especially those based on the Internet.

Crystals can include minerals, all metals, salts, most organic compounds, and a great variety of other solids. Looking at the crystals of various minerals, we can see that some of them look like geometrically regular polyhedrons. The regular and perfect geometry of crystals has since long suggested researchers think about regularities’ presence in their internal structure. In fact, with time, it became clear that natural flat facets and smooth edges of crystals reflect their internal structure, which are external expressions of an ordered arrangement of ions and atoms included in the chemical formula of a crystal. So a crystal is a single body in which each structural particle interacts with other particles and lives with them in common interests. Together all particles form their “Universe” – volumetric cellular structure in the form of a crystal lattice. The most fundamental notion for representing the internal architecture of crystals is symmetry associated with proportionality, harmony, order, and stability.

The important role of symmetry

Symmetry plays an important role in the world of inanimate nature. In rock crystals, we can find types of symmetry with the third, fourth, sixth-order axes. There are also many examples of the manifestation of the golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers in living nature. It was established that the number of organs of plants does not change continuously, taking any values, but discretely, by jumps, and these discrete values are Fibonacci numbers. It may be noted that both all living things on the Earth and the frozen nature as well as creations of human hands, which we perceive as harmonious, obey Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio laws, with which they are closely connected. In all probability, this is because we are arranged according to the rules of the golden ratio. The connection of Fibonacci numbers with the laws of development of animate and inanimate nature is also noted by scientists; these numbers also influence the ratio of the quantitative composition of compounds in chemistry. In the last decade, the progress made in the prediction of crystal structures of substances, a direction that for a long time was considered almost hopeless, has been actively discussed.

If we consider that Li contains everything, then any form and, in particular, a crystal should contain Li elements. Crystal, with its decentralized structure, reminds us of the structure of quantum fields. A crystal structure is like an organic network, expressed through neural networks, and all this is Li. And also, crystal structure as a synthetic network through simulation of structures and most likely to be decentralized. This can be seen in the examples of cryptocurrency, digital and neural networks, and cryptography.

Application on structural systems

It is helpful to divide science into fundamental and applied. The benefits of fundamental science can only be expected years later. For example, during World War II, specialists worked on deciphering the codes of German cryptography systems – and 40 years later, this led to the emergence of the Internet. The idea to create a computer that uses such phenomena of quantum mechanics as quantum superposition and quantum entanglement to transmit and process data – appeared in the last century. And clearly, quantum computers can be described as our chance to cope with the challenges of the XXI century because they offer enormous opportunities not only in numerous peaceful areas of human activity but also in the field of cyberattacks. That’s why scientists are facing another challenge – the protection of quantum devices – quantum cryptography. As a science, quantum cryptography originated in 1984, when the first quantum key distribution protocol was developed. In distributed quantum computing, network nodes in a network can process information by acting as quantum vents, and secure data transfer can be realized using quantum key distribution algorithms. The main advantage of which over classical ones is a rigorous theoretical justification of their strength. In quantum cryptography, it is possible to take all actions allowed by the laws of nature, and still, there will be no possibility of finding out a secret key and remaining undetected. Important for quantum cryptography property of quantum mechanics is a property of wave function collapse, which means that when measuring any quantum mechanical system, its initial state, generally speaking, changes. This leads to the important consequence that it is impossible to distinguish quantum states from their set reliably. In quantum networks, using optical fiber or free space as a transmission medium, transmission of pure quantum states in the form of photons over long distances plays an important role. Quantum computing looks promising in theory, but it is not easy to implement in practice. First of all, qubits are extremely unstable – even minor external influences disturb the entanglement.

Also in cryptocurrency models

Smart contracts, which regulate data transfer in a decentralized environment based on an electronic algorithm involving cryptocurrency, are blockchains. A blockchain is an indestructible digital record of actions. Each block of which is a specific numerical code (and in addition not only numerical), and any subsequent block contains information from the previous block. Thus, we should consider that it is a database and a way of encrypting and transmitting data. The most exciting thing about the blockchain is that it creates trust networks – networks in which everyone trusts each other. This is because the blockchain is transparent and allows you to see what is happening inside any process, which is the safest way to combine any pieces into one system.

The network of the universe?

The Universe’s structure looks like a giant Brain. This brain is thinking all the time by using the dark and hidden energy that is in the very early stage of understanding by modern scientists. The network expresses the ability to find an endless quantity of energy. Meantime giving the power to bang and develop itself. One very important and much more interesting fact is that if we give nature some appropriate conditions, it automatically creates new tree structures. Thus, nature is the machine, engine creating this beauty. Let’s think about it, or better say, let’s imagine it in the form of using electricity to grow trees of silver crystals. The crystal forms grow on the aluminum cathode in the form of electro-deposited ions with the help of silver–nitrate solution. The creation of crystal forms is automated. We can see on a physical experiment the creation of the art of nature. In this meaning, everything in nature is self-organized. So higher is the electricity amplitude that we give to the experiment, the more results of crystals creation become even more apparent. We can’t see all this in real-time, but it’s possible to see the experiment using slow-motion effects. In real-time, in our real point of view, our understanding of time and space.

Neural networks are the creation of a crystalline structure due to their decentralized structure. Newly developed neural networks predict stable crystal structures and calculate the bonding energy of crystals with an error of the order of 10 millielectronvolts per atom. Such a low error is enough to estimate the stability of new potentially useful materials predicted theoretically and possessing unusual properties and where the concept of “crystal lattice” plays an important role. However, not all such predictions can be realized in practice. A neural network and artificial neural network is a mathematical model built on the principle of organization and functioning of biological neural networks. The notion arose in studying processes occurring in the human brain and an attempt to simulate these processes. In terms of artificial intelligence, the artificial neural network is the basis of the philosophical current of Connecticism and the main direction in the structural approach to the study of the possibility of modeling natural intelligence with the help of computer algorithms. Neural networks are not programmable in the usual sense of the word, but they are trainable. The possibility of learning is one of the main advantages of neural networks over traditional algorithms.

Quantum computing

Just recently, it became known that a group of researchers managed to create inside a quantum computer a new state of matter – the temporal crystal, the very existence of which seems to challenge the fundamental laws of physics known to us. A scientific article written with the participation of researchers from leading American universities and detailing the technology of creating the crystal is soon to be published in the journal Nature – after passing the due diligence of the scientific community. The scientists demonstrated that the temporal crystal they created satisfies several criteria that allow them to consider it a genuine temporal crystal. As explained, a temporal crystal is a hypothetical system whose characteristics change periodically in time, even if it is in the main energy state. Such name was given with a glance to the usual crystals, in which periodicity takes place in one or several spatial directions, and crystals themselves form when the temperature of the medium decreases. However, almost immediately after its emergence, the idea of temporary crystals was criticized by physicists. In thermodynamic equilibrium, the system in the ground state cannot perform any vibrations. In the excited state, its evolution cannot be strictly periodic in time, as required by the concept of time crystals, because of the system’s tendency to transition to the ground state. Nevertheless, scientists found a way around this problem. It turned out that it is possible to ensure the system’s stability in the excited state if we forbid it to relax to the ground state by means of the so-called multiparticle localization. The theorists’ calculations showed that by applying a periodic external action to the localized system, it is possible to cause oscillations in it that will continue as long as desired. This concept was called a discrete-time crystal.

Water as the simplest crystals integrator

And to understand the nature of a temporal crystal, to begin with, let’s get back to understanding what an ordinary crystal is – whether it is a precious diamond or simple ice. Unlike liquids and gases, where particles are in constant motion, periodically colliding with each other, a crystal is solid. Its atoms (or molecules) are bound together and arranged in a strict repetitive sequence, at the same distance from each other, like corners of cells on a chessboard. However, the cells are flat, and the crystal is three-dimensional, so its structure is more like a Rubik’s cube. Imagine that you poured a handful of coins into a box and carefully laid each one out eagle-side up. Then you shake the box well, open it, and see that the coins inside are upside down, and they are all the same: every single one of them is now upside down. Another shake and you see that it heads again; another shake and you see that it’s tails again, and so on. It is as if the system remembers the state it was in at the beginning and returns to it repeatedly after each change. And after each odd change, it reverses that state. Since the repeated action is the same, and its result repeats every other time, scientists say that the symmetry of time is broken in this case. This is the defining property of temporal crystals. Coins, in this case, are elementary particles that make up a crystal. Heads and tails are their quantum states, and “shaking the box” is any periodical repeated influence.

It is still unclear whether the genuine time crystal can find practical applications. However, according to the authors, their result shows the conceptual possibility of the existence of a stable non-equilibrium phase. Ultimately, such research provides an opportunity to look at the nature of space and time from a different angle. The scientists’ finding could be a real breakthrough in creating quantum processors with millions of qubits. Vaccine and medical drug development, artificial intelligence, transportation and logistics, climate change science – all these fields will take a huge step forward when a full-scale quantum computer appears.

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