Tribalism denotes the manifestation of inter-tribal hostility based on the cultural and socio-political particularity of tribes and the state in which tribes or tribal ways of life are organized or promoted. Suppose one imagines that this is in principle what the entire social-tribalist-political system in any of the independent states of contemporary Tropical Africa is like. In that case, we get a political administration consisting of many competing influential figures, each relying on his clan, his clients, and his tribe. In large tribal groups, there may be several similar groups according to the number of tribal subdivisions. But the main point is that the principle of the creation of political parties and the functioning of the political elite is just that. The clan structure of the state power structure is at the heart of the whole of Central Asia.
However, it was also characteristic of early European societies, where the concept of a clan, in the narrow sense, means family, in the broad sense – offspring, descendants, family, and even tribe, in the early Middle Ages, can be traced to the Irish, Scottish, and Welsh. Thanks to the Industrial Revolution and the transition from feudal to capitalist societies, the European nations have since managed to go much further in the principles of social organization. Meanwhile, for a number of reasons, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Africa have been stuck in this state.
Despite the natural tendency to divide everyone into ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders,’ there are many criteria by which the division takes place. But it is possible to change them. Sometimes groups of people who used to be hostile to each other come together for a common goal. Good news! The concepts of “our own” and “stranger” are relative. There is always a chance to change the situation and overcome hatred. With a negative connotation and in a political context, tribalism can also mean discriminatory behavior or addiction based on loyalty to one’s social group.
Example of Tribalism
Millennia later, the need to unite in close clans has remained, taking new forms. In peacetime, tribalism is most evident in sports and politics, when fans of one club, for example, hate the other, and Democrats hate Republicans. At the heart of the feeling is a tribal model of behavior, which was the key to survival in primitive society. The origin of enmity over political beliefs is the same loyalty to the pack. To tribalism are added beliefs and values, making the bonds within the community only stronger.
Such ties are blinding: people ignore facts that discredit their group and pay attention only to positive information. This becomes fertile ground for conflicts supported by biased information in the media. Or another relevant example. About 30% of adolescents are bullied from time to time; one in ten are brutally bullied all the time. Is the desire for pressure and humiliation inherent in us? Perhaps it is a legacy of our ancestors: earlier such situations were considered a rite of initiation, which makes a child stronger. But in modern times, this problem should be taken more seriously – because of the increase in suicides among children.
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