Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss – the 15th SDG goal presented by the United Nations organization under a strategy called Sustainable Development Goals.
Human life depends on Eartharth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihoods. Plantlife provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resource. In addition, forests cover 30 percent of Earth’sth’s surface, provide vital habitats for millions of species, and are important sources for clean air and water and crucial for combating climate change.
Every year, 13 million hectares of forests are lost, while the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares, disproportionately affecting poor communities.
While 15 percent of the land is protected, biodiversity is still at risk. Nearly 7,000 species of animals and plants have been illegally traded. Wildlife trafficking not only erodes biodiversity but creates insecurity, fuels conflict, and feeds corruption.
Urgent action must be taken to reduce natural habitats and biodiversity loss, which are part of our common heritage, global support food and water security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and peace and security.
Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems – Goal Targets
By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, particularly forests, wetlands, mountains, and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
By 2020, promote sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
By 2030, combat desertification, restoring degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought, and floods, strives to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, to enhance their capacity to provide essential benefits for sustainable development.
Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed.
Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.
By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.
By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies, and accounts.
Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation.
Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.